The Hohokam prehistoric culture in Oasisamerica (what is now known as the American Southwest) existed from around the beginning of the Current Era to about 650 years ago. Oasisamerican cultures were centered on and nourished by the rivers of the area.
The term “Hohokam” derives from the O’Odham word for “all used up.” Modern O’Odham peoples in Southern Arizona may have descended from the Hohokam.
Known for extensive irrigation and agriculture achieved with only hand tools, the Hohokam canals extended their reach away from the Salt and Gila Rivers. These networks were comparable in scope to irrigation efforts in ancient Egypt and ancient China. Ancestors of the Hohokam may have practiced irrigation as early as 2000 years before the Current Era.
Climate change events such as flooding destroyed canal infrastructure and destabilized the Hohokam cultural. Archaeologists generally date the end of the Hohokam sequence to around three centuries before the arrival of Spanish missionary Father Eusebio Francesco Kino.